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Lifset contends that many elected officials, having made commitments to reduce taxes and privatize government, may view EPR as an attractive means of fulfilling promises while reducing government involvement and costs.He also notes that there is continued public support for environmental protection. S.", says Lifset, "will depend on the political fate of conservative attempts to limit environmental regulation - and of the reaction to those initiatives." It is the manufacturer who develops and designs the product or package, and it is the manufacturer who chooses the materials for that product or package.In the words of one disgruntled taxpayer, "Producers reap the reward for selling their products and consumers get stuck with the bill.Then our tax dollars pay for disposal and recycling programs to get rid of it" EPR shifts the costs of managing post consumer products and packaging from the public to the private sector.

EPR is based on the premise that the primary responsibility for waste generated during the production process (including extraction of raw materials) and after the product is discarded, is that of the producer of the product.

A number of instruments are currently being employed to shift responsibility for product and packaging waste from government and taxpayers to producers and consumers.

Four policy instruments and examples of each are as follows: Reid Lifset of Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, cites several factors that have blocked EPR policies in North America: -- Absence of the precautionary principle as a foundation for environmental policy: Northern European environmental policy is founded on the premise that strategies for environmental protection should err on the side of caution, while American environmental policy analysis emphasizes the weighing of costs and benefits.

The first of Sweden EPR laws was a recycling mandate for aluminum cans which was enacted after PLM announced plans to build a can manufacturing plant in Sweden in 1979.

The National Board for Technical Development announced that using aluminum cans for single-serve beer and soft drinks would be wastefulness of the first order unless there was a system for reclaiming the cans.

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